He accomplished this in the summer of 97 by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor, allegedly solely on Trajan's outstanding military merits. Les quatre empereurs sont Galba, Othon, Vitellius et Vespasien, les trois premiers étant nommés et évincés (assassinés ou suicidés) au cours de l'année 69. Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. [141] The garrison city of Oescus received the status of Roman colony after its legionary garrison was redeployed. J.-C. par un mélange de vétérans et de soldats romains et alliés italiens blessés ou malades de l'armée de Scipion l'Africain. EUR 7,90. [295] Trajan's first English-language biography by Julian Bennett is also a positive one in that it assumes that Trajan was an active policy-maker concerned with the management of the empire as a whole – something his reviewer Lendon considers an anachronistic outlook that sees in the Roman emperor a kind of modern administrator. [123] Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. [113], The following winter, King Decebalus took the initiative by launching a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, supported by Sarmatian cavalry,[114] forcing Trajan to come to the aid of the troops in his rearguard. As all four consulars were senators of the highest standing and as such generally regarded as able to take imperial power (capaces imperii), Hadrian seems to have decided on a preemptive strike against these prospective rivals. L'histoire en a fait des modèles opposés. Traja Übersetzung, Deutsch - Franzosisch Wörterbuch, Siehe auch 'Tara',Trabant',tragbar',Trassat', biespiele, konjugation [20], As the details of Trajan's military career are obscure, it is only sure that in 89, as legate of Legio VII Gemina in Hispania Tarraconensis, he supported Domitian against an attempted coup. Mais il ne rentrera à Rome que quelques mois après son avènement. Le sénat va jusqu'à lui accorder le titre d'optimus princeps (littéralement, "le meilleur empereur"). The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. IN Ryan K. Balot, ed.. Bernard W. Henderson, "Five Roman Emperors" (1927). Pliny – who seems to deliberately avoid offering details that would stress personal attachment between Trajan and the "tyrant" Domitian – attributes to him, at the time, various (and unspecified) feats of arms. [294] Following in Paribeni's footsteps, the German historian Alfred Heuss saw in Trajan "the accomplished human embodiment of the imperial title" (die ideale Verkörperung des humanen Kaiserbegriffs). I - Avant Rome Homogénéité et peuplement de la France . [77] It is noteworthy that an embassy from Dio's city of Prusa was not favorably received by Trajan,[78] and that this had to do with Dio's chief objective, which was to elevate Prusa to the status of a free city, an "independent" city-state exempt from paying taxes to Rome. Vespasien réglemente tout d'abord le statut de l'empereur, qui précise ses pouvoirs d'après la loi Lex de imperio Vespasiani, contribuant à faire du Prince non plus un homme exceptionnellement revêtu de plusieurs pouvoirs mais un magistrat du peuple romain, et il légitime la désignation de l'empereur par l'armée, auparavant investi par le Sénat[3]. Il a intégré les provinciaux dans l'État romain, et a été un grand administrateur en favorisant l'agriculture et le commerce avec les provinces. [106] According to the provisions of this treaty, Decebalus was acknowledged as rex amicus, that is, client king; nevertheless, in exchange for accepting client status, he received a generous stipend from Rome, as well as being supplied with technical experts. Non-citizens who admitted to being Christians and refused to recant, however, were to be executed "for obstinacy". Therefore, in reality the post was conceived as a means for "taming" both Greek notables and Roman senators. Trajan's putative lovers included Hadrian, pages of the imperial household, the actor Pylades, a dancer called Apolaustus, and senator Lucius Licinius Sura. J.-C. (début du règne d'Auguste) à 476 ap. [298] It is in modern French historiography that Trajan's reputation becomes most markedly deflated: Paul Petit writes about Trajan's portraits as a "lowbrow boor with a taste for booze and boys". [6] Besides this, Pliny the Younger's Panegyricus and Dio of Prusa's orations are the best surviving contemporary sources. [48] The whole idea was that Trajan wielded autocratic power through moderatio instead of contumacia – moderation instead of insolence. Pour désigner l'empereur, les Romains utilisaient plutôt les termes de « César », d’« Auguste », car ils considéraient tous les empereurs comme rattachés sinon par le sang, du moins par une sorte de lien d'adoption, à la famille de César (les premiers empereurs étaient effectivement de sa famille). Cherchez des exemples de traductions trajan dans des phrases, écoutez à la prononciation et apprenez la grammaire. [107] The treaty seems to have allowed Roman troops the right of passage through the Dacian kingdom in order to attack the Marcomanni, Quadi and Sarmatians. J.-C. (chute de Romulus Augustule et fin de l'empire romain d'Occident). It is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they certainly recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC. [220] This process seems to have been completed at the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor.Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. [66], Competition among Greek cities and their ruling oligarchies was mainly for marks of preeminence, especially for titles bestowed by the Roman emperor. Sa construction, ayant duré 15 ans, a démarré sous le règne de l'Empereur Claude et a dû s'achever sous Trajan. Le titre d'empereur romain, résultant d'un concept assez moderne, résume la position tenue par les individus détenteurs du pouvoir dans l'Empire romain. It may also originate in Roman displeasure at an empress meddling in political affairs. [253] Quietus discharged his commissions successfully, so much that the war was afterward named after him – Kitus being a corruption of Quietus. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and a builder of roads such as the Via Traiana - the extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum to Brundisium[153] - and Via Traiana Nova, a mostly military road between Damascus and Aila, whose building was connected to the founding of the province of Arabia (see annexation of Nabataea) . [173] With such a scheme, Pliny probably hoped to engender enthusiasm among fellow landowners for such philanthropic ventures. However, the placement of the slab at Caput Bovis suggests that the canal extended to this point or that there was a second canal downriver of the Kasajna-Ducis Pratum one. [198] As far as territorial conquest involved tax-collecting,[199] especially of the 25% tax levied on all goods entering the Roman Empire, the tetarte, one can say that Trajan's Parthian War had an "economic" motive. [90] When the city of Apamea complained of an audit of its accounts by Pliny, alleging its "free" status as a Roman colony, Trajan replied by writing that it was by his own wish that such inspections had been ordered. Mort d'Auguste. Finally, in 105, Decebalus undertook an invasion of Roman-occupied territory north of the Danube. [58], As a senatorial Emperor, Trajan was inclined to choose his local base of political support from among the members of the ruling urban oligarchies. 1. Cassius Dio added that he always remained dignified and fair. [55][56] In his third kingship oration, Dio describes an ideal king ruling by means of "friendship" – that is, through patronage and a network of local notables who act as mediators between the ruled and the ruler. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana, and his niece was Salonina Matidia. Download this stock image: Antiquite romaine, guerres daciques de Trajan, le roi dace Decebale (Decebal ou Decebalus ou Diurpaneus) depose les armes aux pieds de l'empereur roma - 2BRJNC0 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. RE XII. Si on considère la nature de la mort de ces 164 empereurs (soit naturelle, soit violente) on constate que la proportion de morts naturelles est de 44% pour les empereurs « légitimes », 30 % pour les usurpateurs légitimés et seulement 7% pour les usurpateurs non légitimés. The Roman Senate wished subsequent emperors to "be more fortunate than Augustus and better than Trajan". Très riche avant d’être empereur, il diminua beaucoup sa fortune par ses largesses dans la solde des troupes, et par ses libéralités envers ses amis; mais il laissa le trésor public florissant. Brian Campbell, "War and Diplomacy: Rome & Parthia 31 BC - AD 235". [216], The chronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it is generally believed that early in 115 Trajan launched a Mesopotamian campaign, marching down towards the Taurus mountains in order to consolidate territory between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. [97] Severus was the grandfather of the prominent general Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus, consul in 105. Ses alliés rejoignant les uns après les autres le camp de Vespasien, Vitellius est finalement battu au cours de la seconde bataille de Bedriacum. Learn more about Trajan in this article. BROAD-STREET. [149] Therefore, use of slave labor in the province itself seems to have been relatively undeveloped, and epigraphic evidence points to work in the gold mines being conducted by means of labor contracts (locatio conductio rei) and seasonal wage-earning. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the second-greatest military expansion in Roman history after Augustus, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. In: In the absence of literary references, however, the positioning of the new legions is conjectural: some scholars think that Legio II Traiana Fortis was originally stationed on the Lower Danube and participated in the Second Dacian War, being only later deployed to the East:cf. Syme, R., 1971. [82] One of the compensatory measures proposed by Pliny expressed a thoroughly Roman conservative position: as the cities' financial solvency depended on the councilmen's purses, it was necessary to have more councilmen on the local city councils. Les trois empereurs flaviens tentent de rétablir l'équilibre économique et militaire de l'Empire, affaibli par les derniers empereurs Julio-Claudiens et par la guerre civile de 69. [21] Later, after his 91 consulate (held with Acilius Glabrio, a rare pair of consuls at the time, in that neither consul was a member of the ruling dynasty), he held some unspecified consular commission as governor on either Pannonia or Germania Superior – possibly both. Justice requires it and pity holds me back.' J.E. [142] Therefore, the indefensible character of the province did not appear to be a problem for Trajan, as the province was conceived more as a sally-base for further attacks. [220] Since Charax was a de facto independent kingdom whose connections to Palmyra were described above, Trajan's bid for the Persian Gulf may have coincided with Palmyrene interests in the region. Mais Trajan est avant tout un empereur militaire, connu pour ses deux guerres contre les Daces (Roumanie) qui se soldent en 106-107 par le suicide du roi Décébale et la réduction de la Dacie en province impériale (reliefs de la Colonne Trajane à Rome). Allocution de l'Empereur Trajan Bas relief Arc Constantin François Perrier 1645 | Art, antiquités, Art du XIXe et avant, Estampes, gravures, lithos | eBay! [236][231] It is possible that it was this "streamlining" of the administration of the newly conquered lands according to the standard pattern of Roman provincial administration in tax collecting, requisitions and the handling of local potentates' prerogatives, that triggered later resistance against Trajan. [31] When Nerva died on 27 January 98, Trajan succeeded to the role of emperor without any outward incident. Théodose Ier est le dernier empereur à diriger effectivement la totalité de l'Empire romain. Nerva died in 98 and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. J.-C., est caractérisé par la concentration des pouvoirs entre les mains d'un seul individu, plutôt qu'entre celles du « Sénat et du peuple romain » (Senatus Populusque Romanus, SPQR). Aside from their enormous booty (over half a million slaves, according to John Lydus),[147] Trajan's Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire's finances through the acquisition of Dacia's gold mines, managed by an imperial procurator of equestrian rank (procurator aurariarum). Son père suivit toutes les étapes de la politique romaine jusqu'au sénat. EUR 43,00. Eugen Cizek, "Tacite face à Trajan", available at, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984), The History of the Roman People, pp. Dès la nuit des temps, le site de Mers-el-Kébir a été un abri naturel recherché par les premiers hommes de l'ère néolithique qui vivaient des fruits de la mer. He was succeeded by his cousin Hadrian, whom Trajan supposedly adopted on his deathbed. [262], Hadrian held an ambiguous position during Trajan's reign. This can be explained in part by the prominence of his father's career, as his father had been instrumental to the ascent of the ruling Flavian dynasty, held consular rank himself and had just been made a patrician. [12][2], Trajan was the son of Marcia, a Roman noblewoman and sister-in-law of the second Flavian Emperor Titus,[13] and Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, a prominent senator and general from the gens Ulpia. [227][228], He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, when, after escaping with his fleet a tidal bore on the Tigris,[229] he received the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. [100] But then Trajan's new Eastern senators were mostly very powerful and very wealthy men with more than local influence[101] and much interconnected by marriage, so that many of them were not altogether "new" to the Senate. May you rule fortunate like Augustus and better than Trajan. For other uses, see, "Marcus Ulpius Trajanus" redirects here. [36] His belated ceremonial entry into Rome in 99 was notably understated, something on which Pliny the Younger elaborated. [86], Trajan ingratiated himself with the Greek intellectual elite by recalling to Rome many (including Dio) who had been exiled by Domitian,[87] and by returning (in a process begun by Nerva) a great deal of private property that Domitian had confiscated. The next few emperors reconfigured or ignored it, and in 104 Trajan reused the palace’s walls and vaults to create a suitable foundation for his famous baths. R. P. Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan". [221] The area between the Khabur River and the mountains around Singara seems to have been considered as the new frontier, and as such received a road surrounded by fortresses. [26][27] These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan. [46], In the formula developed by Pliny, however, Trajan was a "good" emperor in that, by himself, he approved or blamed the same things that the Senate would have approved or blamed. ", Šašel, Jaroslav. 353, 354 Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Some historians also attribute the construction of the Babylon fortress in Egypt to Trajan;[277] the remains of the fort is what is now known as the Church of Mar Girgis and its surrounding buildings. Défait, il vit en clandestinité pendant plusieurs années … [112] Trajan's troops were mauled in the encounter, and he put off further campaigning for the year in order to regroup and reinforce his army. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. [292] Although Mommsen had no liking for Trajan's successor Hadrian – "a repellent manner, and a venomous, envious and malicious nature" – he admitted that Hadrian, in renouncing Trajan's conquests, was "doing what the situation clearly required". The fourth century emperor Constantine I is credited with saying "[Trajan] is like a spider that creeps up on every wall. Ceux-ci, ayant jeté leurs armes et s'étant précipités à terre, supplièrent Trajan de vouloir bien, avant tout, consentir à ce que Décébale vînt en sa présence et entrât en pourparler avec lui, ajoutant qu'il était prêt à faire tout ce qui lui serait commandé ; sinon, que l'empereur envoyât, du moins, quelqu'un pour s'entendre avec lui." Les frontières naturelles (Rhin, Pyrénées, Alpes) sont loin d'être infranchissables, et les invasions n'ont jamais été arrêtées par la géographie. Ritterling, E., 1925. Les côtes sont nombreuses et favorisent l'échange avec l'extérieur. His cartouche also appears in the column shafts of the Temple of Khnum at Esna. Pierre Lambrechts, "Trajan et le récrutement du Sénat". Les cinq premiers empereurs sont surnommés les « Cinq bons Empereurs »[4]. [96] Such must be the case of the Galatian notable and "leading member of the Greek community" (according to one inscription) Gaius Julius Severus, who was a descendant of several Hellenistic dynasts and client kings. [206] This interpretation is backed by the fact that all subsequent Roman wars against Parthia would aim at establishing a Roman presence deep into Parthia itself. Auguste (Augustus) est souvent reconnu comme étant le premier empereur. Remporte la vente aux enchères pour le poste d'empereur organisée par la, Prend le pouvoir avec le soutien des légions de, Proclamé empereur par les légions du Danube à la mort de, Gouverneur d'une province de l'Est, proclamé empereur par les légions du Danube contre, Proclamé empereur par l'armée après la mort de, Adopté en tant que « César » de l'Occident et héritier par, Adopté en tant que « César » de l'Orient et héritier par, Adopté en tant que « César » et héritier par, Usurpateur du trône de l'Occident de 383 au 384, puis coempereur légitime, S'autoproclame empereur avec le soutien de l'armée après la mort de. Native Dacians continued to live in scattered rural settlements, according to their own ways. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. Denier de vespasien. Dikla Rivlin Katz, Noah Hacham, Geoffrey Herman, Lilach Sagiv, Z. Yavetz, "The Urban Plebs in the Days of the Flavians, Nerva and Trajan". [239] No attempt was made to expand into the Iranian Plateau itself, where the Roman army, with its relative weakness in cavalry, would have been at a disadvantage. J.-C., il détient le titre de dictateur à vie, mais c'est Auguste qui met fin à la République en 27 av. [267] However, Hadrian, who was eventually entrusted with the governorship of Syria at the time of Trajan's death, was Trajan's cousin and was married to Trajan's grandniece,[268] which all made him as good as heir designate. L'Empire romain d'Orient, que les historiens nomment aussi « Empire byzantin » à partir du Haut Moyen Âge, disparaît en 1453 lors de la prise de Constantinople par les Ottomans. Istorijski reljef. Peu de choses, nous pouvons supposer, si ce n’est qu’il fait partie de la longue lignée des empereurs romains persécuteurs des chrétiens. L'Empire, développé à partir de la République romaine après avoir fait de sa capitale Rome le pouvoir dominant en Europe au Ier siècle av. [243], Trajan sent two armies towards Northern Mesopotamia: the first, under Lusius Quietus, recovered Nisibis and Edessa from the rebels, probably having King Abgarus deposed and killed in the process,[243] with Quietus probably earning the right to receive the honors of a senator of praetorian rank (adlectus inter praetorios). Literary sources relate that Trajan had considered others, such as the jurist Lucius Neratius Priscus, as heir. [112], In 106, Rabbel II Soter, one of Rome's client kings, died. Il était issu de la riche famille espagnole d’origine italienne des Ulpii, qui émigra à Rome peu après la naissance de Trajan. [297] The biography by the German historian Karl Strobel stresses the continuity between Domitian's and Trajan's reigns, saying that Trajan's rule followed the same autocratic and sacred character as Domitian's, culminating in a failed Parthian adventure intended as the crown of his personal achievement. [181] That meant that Charax on the Persian Gulf was the sole remaining western terminus of the Indian trade route outside direct Roman control,[182] and such control was important in order to lower import prices and to limit the supposed drain of precious metals created by the deficit in Roman trade with the Far East. Pendant près de mille ans se succèdent treize dynasties d'empereurs. Empire romain27 av. [293], It was exactly this military character of Trajan's reign that attracted his early twentieth-century biographer, the Italian Fascist historian Roberto Paribeni, who in his 1927 two-volume biography Optimus Princeps described Trajan's reign as the acme of the Roman principate, which he saw as Italy's patrimony. By trying to develop an anti-Roman bloc, Decebalus eventually left Trajan without the alternative of treating Dacia as a protectorate, rather than an outright conquest. Mais toutes leurs tentatives pour s'y installer durablement ont échoué. Lendon, "Three Emperors and the Roman Imperial Regime". [16], In 91, Trajan was created ordinary Consul for the year, which was a great honour as he was in his late thirties and therefore just above the minimum legal age (32) for holding the post. Their military function fulfilled, most of them fell into disrepair or were wrecked on purpose after Trajan's reign: cf. Separate scenes of Domitian and Trajan making offerings to the gods appear on reliefs on the propylon of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. [119][121] By 105, the concentration of Roman troops assembled in the middle and lower Danube amounted to fourteen legions (up from nine in 101) – about half of the entire Roman army. [122] Even after the Dacian wars, the Danube frontier would permanently replace the Rhine as the main military axis of the Roman Empire. [30], As governor of Lower Germany during Nerva's reign, Trajan received the impressive title of Germanicus for his skillful management and rule of the volatile Imperial province. [202] There could also be Trajan's idea to use an ambitious blueprint of conquests as a way to emphasize quasi-divine status, such as with his cultivated association, in coins and monuments, to Hercules. Bodleian Libraries. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace within the Empire and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Trajan est né sous le nom de Marcus Ulpius Traianus le 18 septembre en 53 après J-C à Italica près de Séville ( Espagne ). He commissioned either the creation or enlargement of the road along the Iron Gates, carved into the side of the gorge. En 117, l'empereur Trajan mourait et Hadrien lui succédait à la tête de l'Empire romain. Les peuples gothiques se regroupèrent en une ... en 105 par l’Empereur Trajan, prédécesseur auquel Trajan Dèce se rattache et région dont il est issu. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the second-greatest military expansion in Roman history after Augustus, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. [139] A number of unorganized urban settlements (vici) developed around military encampments in Dacia proper - the most important being Apulum - but were only acknowledged as cities proper well after Trajan's reign. Volumes are region-specific resources. Celui-ci est très âgé et n'a pas d'héritier. [233], According to late literary sources (not backed by numismatic or inscriptional evidence) a province of Assyria was also proclaimed,[234] apparently covering the territory of Adiabene. Both are adulatory perorations, typical of the High Imperial period, that describe an idealized monarch and an equally idealized view of Trajan's rule, and concern themselves more with ideology than with actual fact. … En 88, à la mort de son père, il est envoyé à Rome pour être confié à deux tuteurs parmi lesquels le futur empereur Trajan. Il est juge à l'âge de 19 ans. [154], One of Trajan's notable acts during this period was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date is unknown).