[132] In 159 and 160, Faustina gave birth to daughters: Fadilla and Cornificia, named respectively after Faustina's and Marcus's dead sisters. Lukas de Blois sieht Mark Aurels tägliches Handeln zwar von seinen philosophischen Neigungen beeinflusst, jedoch nicht in der Art systematisch begründeter politischer Reformen. Unter Kaiser Vespasian hatte er es bis zum Praetor gebracht. August 178 brachen Mark Aurel und Commodus zum zweiten Markomannenkrieg auf. Marcus, with his preference for the philosophic life, found the imperial office unappealing. [198], There was threat of war on other frontiers as well – in Britain, and in Raetia and Upper Germany, where the Chatti of the Taunus mountains had recently crossed over the limes. The formalities of the position would follow. He was a man suited for a time of military crisis. [79] Marcus had complained of an illness in an earlier letter: 'As far as my strength is concerned, I am beginning to get it back; and there is no trace of the pain in my chest. The citizens of Seleucia, still largely Greek (the city had been commissioned and settled as a capital of the Seleucid Empire, one of Alexander the Great's successor kingdoms), opened its gates to the invaders. Dezember 2020 um 15:48 Uhr bearbeitet. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', pp. [245] In response, Roman forces were moved downstream, to cross the Euphrates at a more southerly point. The city was sacked nonetheless, leaving a black mark on Lucius's reputation. Als Princeps und Nachfolger seines Adoptivvaters Antoninus Pius nannte er … Aus großer Auswahl bestellen, günstig auf Rechnung kaufen und schnell zu Ihnen nach Hause liefern lassen. He was made consul soon after. Seiner Selbstdarstellung als Stoiker auf dem Kaiserthron entsprechend, konzentrierte Mark Aurel sein Regierungshandeln, solange ihm dies möglich war, auf die inneren Strukturen des Reiches. 'I have duties hanging over me that can hardly be begged off', he wrote back. 'Meditations' – as well as other titles including 'To Himself' – were adopted later. P. Julius Geminius Marcianus, an African senator commanding X Gemina at Vindobona (Vienna), left for Cappadocia with detachments from the Danubian legions. [43] In April 132, at the behest of Diognetus, Marcus took up the dress and habits of the philosopher: he studied while wearing a rough Greek cloak, and would sleep on the ground until his mother convinced him to sleep on a bed. He was stronger and healthier than Marcus, the argument went, and thus more suited to military activity. [106] Fronto replied that he was surprised to discover Marcus counted Atticus as a friend (perhaps Atticus was not yet Marcus's tutor), and allowed that Marcus might be correct,[107] but nonetheless affirmed his intent to win the case by any means necessary: '[T]he charges are frightful and must be spoken of as frightful. [56] As part of Hadrian's terms, Antoninus, in turn, adopted Marcus and Lucius Commodus, the son of Lucius Aelius. Der Herrschaftsantritt des Philosophen Mark Aurel als Kaiser hätte demnach ein problematisches Spannungsfeld erzeugen können. Augustinus von Hippo führt Mark Aurel in seinem Werk vom Gottesstaat als vierten von zehn Christenverfolgern unter den römischen Kaisern an. Nichts deutet darauf hin, dass Mark Aurel jemals mit dem Gedanken gespielt haben könnte, seinen Sohn nicht zu seinem Nachfolger zu machen. [247] Soon after the conquest of the north bank of the Euphrates, other Roman forces moved on Osroene from Armenia, taking Anthemusia, a town southwest of Edessa. Das besondere Augenmerk galt dabei den Schwachen und Benachteiligten der römischen Gesellschaft, den Sklaven, Frauen und Kindern, deren Situation er zu erleichtern suchte. Bereits im Dezember 147 war Mark Aurel durch die Verleihung der tribunicia potestas und des imperium proconsulare zum Mitregenten avanciert. Marcus had chosen a reliable man rather than a talented one. In diesem Fall wurden sie hingerichtet. Demandt 2018, S. 313 mit Bezug auf Historia Augusta. Monday to Thursday: 9 am - 5 pm | Friday: 9 am - 1 pm. [53] So ordnet Adams auch die beiden Mark Aurel kritisch behandelnden Abschnitte (20 und 29) der Marcus-Vita in der Historia Augusta ein, die in der Tradition der Kaiser-Biographien Suetons vermutlich dazu dienen sollten, dem überaus positiven Gesamtbild des Philosophen auf dem Kaiserthron einen neutralen Anstrich zu geben. The extent to which Marcus himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians. [173], Marcus replaced a number of the empire's major officials. Galen, who was in Rome when the plague spread to the city in 166,[282] mentioned that 'fever, diarrhoea, and inflammation of the pharynx, along with dry or pustular eruptions of the skin after nine days' were among the symptoms. [232] Lucilla's thirteenth birthday was in March 163; whatever the date of her marriage, she was not yet fifteen. He decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 83.5% to 79% – the silver weight dropping from 2.68 g (0.095 oz) to 2.57 g (0.091 oz). Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', p. 68. [230], In the middle of the war, perhaps in autumn 163 or early 164, Lucius made a trip to Ephesus to be married to Marcus's daughter Lucilla. [110] Marcus had grown tired of his exercises, of taking positions in imaginary debates. [125], In 149, Faustina gave birth again, to twin sons. Marcus Annius Verus, der Großvater Mark Aurels, bekleidete bereits dreimal das Amt des Konsuls. A spiral of carved reliefs wraps around the column, showing scenes from his military campaigns. films séries gaming artistes thèmes. Pensées pour moi-même (French Edition) eBook: Aurèle, Marc: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop. Übers. Entdecken Sie . [47] Marcus thanks Alexander for his training in literary styling. [19] The gens Annia was of Italian origins (with legendary claims of descendance from Numa Pompilius) and a branch of it moved to Ucubi, a small town south east of Córdoba in Iberian Baetica. Just one thing prevented him from being completely happy, namely, that after rearing and educating his son in the best possible way he was vastly disappointed in him. [314], It is not known how widely Marcus's writings were circulated after his death. While on campaign between 170 and 180, Marcus wrote his Meditations in Greek as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement. [305] Their children included: Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. [52] Dabei sei die Unterscheidung zwischen Faktum und Fiktion in der Historia Augusta äußerst schwierig, weil sich die Darstellung aus einer Epoche speise, in der die Idealisierung Mark Aurels dessen Betrachtung umfassend durchdrungen habe. The latter two were the most esteemed orators of their time,[86] but probably did not become his tutors until his adoption by Antoninus in 138. [44] A new set of tutors – the Homeric scholar Alexander of Cotiaeum along with Trosius Aper and Tuticius Proculus, teachers of Latin[45][note 3] – took over Marcus's education in about 132 or 133. Sein Urgroßvater war aus den hispanischen Provinzen nach Rom gekommen. [39] Marcus was grateful that he did not have to live with her longer than he did. Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Jancie J.; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitters, Mark F. An, Jiayao. [118] He was older than Fronto and twenty years older than Marcus. Marcus consented to Antoninus's proposal. Die rein dynastische Nachfolgeregelung scheint bis heute vielen so gar nicht zum sonstigen Agieren des idealisierten Philosophenkaisers zu passen. And Lucius, raising his hand to heaven, said, ' O Zeus, the king of the Romans in his old age takes up his tablets and goes to school.' Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Über die Ernennung des Lucius Verus zum Mit- bzw. [19] Mit dem Tode des Antoninus Pius 161 ging das Kaisertum dann auf Mark Aurel über, der fast unverzüglich seinen Adoptivbruder Lucius Verus zum formal (fast) gleichberechtigten Mitkaiser erhob. Sein politisches Denken spiegeln unter anderem folgende Auszüge aus den Selbstbetrachtungen: Freiheit und Gerechtigkeit, vor allem im Sinne gleichen Rechts für alle, gehörten demnach zu den früh angeeigneten und stets propagierten politischen Leitvorstellungen Mark Aurels. Am 3. Dessen Sukzession war für alle Beteiligten schlicht eine Selbstverständlichkeit: Als Privaterbe des Kaisers verfügte Commodus über gewaltige Geldmittel und die Loyalität der Soldaten; solange er lebte, war er als Thronfolger unvermeidlich. There are stray references in the ancient literature to the popularity of his precepts, and Julian the Apostate was well aware of his reputation as a philosopher, though he does not specifically mention Meditations. Dezember des Jahres 176 feierte Mark Aurel zusammen mit Commodus in Rom den Triumph über die Germanen und Sarmaten (siehe oben). [320], A close up view of the Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius in the Capitoline Museums, Marcus's victory column, established in Rome either in his last few years of life or after his reign and completed in 193, was built to commemorate his victory over the Sarmatians and Germanic tribes in 176. "[299], In the first two centuries of the Christian era, it was local Roman officials who were largely responsible for the persecution of Christians. Marcus and his cousin-wife Faustina had at least 13 children during their 30-year marriage,[123][303] including two sets of twins. [200][note 14], More bad news arrived: the Syrian governor's army had been defeated by the Parthians, and retreated in disarray. Die militärische Unerfahrenheit, die die Konsequenz aus diesem Verhalten war, sollte sich später durchaus rächen, da Mark Aurel (im Unterschied zu Lucius Verus) als Feldherr stets eher unglücklich agierte. 179 ließ Mark Aurel an der germanischen Donaugrenze, u. a. zur Abwehr der Markomannen, für die Legio III Italica ein befestigtes Lager errichten, aus dem später die Stadt Regensburg hervorging. [7] Dies war auch deshalb notwendig, weil die Nachfolge im Prinzipat grundsätzlich zu Lebzeiten des Vorgängers geregelt werden musste, um reibungslos verlaufen zu können, denn eine Vererbung der kaiserlichen Macht war formal nicht vorgesehen. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus. [171] At the ceremonies commemorating the event, new provisions were made for the support of poor children, along the lines of earlier imperial foundations. Auf eine zweifache und nur scheinbar widersprüchliche Sicht Mark Aurels auf die Vereinbarkeit seines Anspruchs mit seiner Rolle als Herrscher im Krieg richtet Jean Baptiste Gourinat sein Augenmerk anhand der Selbstbetrachtungen. He was too anxious to relax. Lucius asked Fronto to adjudicate in a dispute he and his friend Calpurnius were having on the relative merits of two actors. Kindle-Shop. The Dacias were still divided in three, governed by a praetorian senator and two procurators. Καὶ τοῦτο πρὸς τὸ ἀκενόδοξον φέρει, ὅτι οὐκέτι δύνασαι τὸν βίον ὅλον ἢ τόν γε ἀπὸ νεότητος φιλόσοφον βεβιωκέναι, ἀλλὰ πολλοῖς τε ἄλλοις καὶ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ δῆλος γέγονας πόῤῥω φιλοσοφίας ὤν. Mark Aurel, der die problematischen Wesenszüge seines Sohnes wahrgenommen haben mag, blieb wohl immerhin die Hoffnung, dass Commodus nach der Pubertät in seine Aufgaben hineinwachsen würde. The five horizontal slits allow light into the internal spiral staircase. So stiegen die Kosten für die Veranstaltung derartiger Spiele, die von den Amtsinhabern der städtischen Selbstverwaltungen in den Provinzen zu bestreiten waren, über das erträgliche Maß hinaus. They have been praised by fellow writers, philosophers, monarchs, and politicians centuries after his death. Der zuständige Prokurator sicherte die Verurteilung der bekennenden Christen jedenfalls durch eine Anfrage bei Mark Aurel ab. Then another: the girl alone. [56] Diokletian bekannte sich mit seiner Namensgebung deutlich zu Mark Aurel; und noch in der zweiten Hälfte des 4. [296] The last named went so far as to call him "more philanthropic and philosophic" than Antoninus and Hadrian, and set him against the persecuting emperors Domitian and Nero to make the contrast bolder. (398, 256 S.) 2. [170], Soon after the emperors' accession, Marcus's eleven-year-old daughter, Annia Lucilla, was betrothed to Lucius (in spite of the fact that he was, formally, her uncle). He found it difficult to keep himself upright without stays. Marc Aurel erfüllte in einem gewissen Sinn Platons Forderung nach einem Philosophen- könig. Resümierend heißt es: „So selten in den Abhandlungen der klassischen römischen Juristen philosophisches Gedankengut aufscheint, so selten ist es auch Entscheidungsgrundlage oder auch nur Motivation in den kaiserlichen Konstitutionen. He sent a note to the imperial freedman Charilas, asking if he could call on the emperors. In 161, the. Aber er folgte geistig nicht der platonischen Akademie, sondern vielmehr der Schu- le Zenons, der Stoa. In Lugdunum (Lyon) machten sich daraufhin Teile der Bevölkerung daran, Christen aufzuspüren und sie im Zusammenwirken mit den örtlichen Zuständigen aburteilen zu lassen, sofern sie ihrem Bekenntnis nicht abschworen. Als er jedoch erkannte, dass der Kaiser noch am Leben und nicht kompromissbereit war, machte er den Fehler, sich ihm nicht zu unterwerfen, und ließ es stattdessen auf einen Kampf ankommen. The diarrhea has stopped, the little attacks of fever have been driven away. [112], Fronto had warned Marcus against the study of philosophy early on: 'It is better never to have touched the teaching of philosophy...than to have tasted it superficially, with the edge of the lips, as the saying is'. [114] Marcus kept in close touch with Fronto, but would ignore Fronto's scruples. [211] Fronto replied: 'What? Bis zum Antritt der eigenen Herrschaft hatte er 23 Jahre lang (138–161) die umfassend genutzte Gelegenheit, sich auf die Anforderungen des Amtes einzustellen, sich in die Verwaltungsstrukturen des Römischen Reiches einzuarbeiten und alle wichtigen Bewerber und Inhaber einflussreicher Ämter kennenzulernen. If not for his adoption, he probably would have become triumvir monetalis, a highly regarded post involving token administration of the state mint; after that, he could have served as tribune with a legion, becoming the legion's nominal second-in-command. Apr 7, 2020 - Watch Gladiator (2000) : Full Movie Online Free In The Year 180, The Death Of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Throws The Roman Empire Into Chaos. eshop@marc-aurel.com. [285] Raoul McLaughlin writes that the travel of Roman subjects to the Han Chinese court in 166 may have started a new era of Roman–Far East trade. Tertullian sprach ihm sogar eine Schutzfunktion (protector) für die Christenheit zu, resultierend aus Mark Aurels Dankbarkeit gegenüber jenen Christen, die mit ihren Gebeten für das „Regenwunder“ im ersten Markomannenkrieg gesorgt haben sollten. His children included Lucilla, who married Lucius, and Commodus, whose succession after Marcus has been a subject of debate among both contemporary and modern historians. His daughters were in Rome with their great-great-aunt Matidia; Marcus thought the evening air of the country was too cold for them. The hope has become a reality. Lucius Catilius Severus, described as Marcus's maternal great-grandfather, also participated in his upbringing; he was probably the elder Domitia Lucilla's stepfather. 250 talking about this. There was corruption among the officers: Victorinus had to ask for the resignation of a legionary legate who was taking bribes. Jahrhunderts Cornelius Motschmann zufolge hauptsächlich Sache der Philosophen, die sich aber an den griechischen Wurzeln ausrichteten und zur römischen Religionspraxis Distanz hielten. Meditations is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty. [301] The early Christian apologist, Justin Martyr, includes within his First Apology (written between 140 and 150 A.D.) a letter from Marcus Aurelius to the Roman senate (prior to his reign) describing a battlefield incident in which Marcus believed Christian prayer had saved his army from thirst when "water poured from heaven," after which, "immediately we recognized the presence of God." [158] This donative, however, was twice the size of those past: 20,000 sesterces (5,000 denarii) per capita, with more to officers. He would criticize himself in the Meditations for 'abusing court life' in front of company. – 2 Bde. His health was so poor that, during a ceremony to mark his becoming heir to the throne, he was too weak to lift a large shield on his own. [71], Religionspolitik und Christenverfolgungen, Die Usurpation des Avidius Cassius und das Nachfolgeproblem, Nachhaltige Verehrung und Vereinnahmung in der Antike, Neuzeitliche Annäherungen und gegenwärtige Deutungen. However, two years later he reverted to the previous values because of the military crises facing the empire. The peace could not hold long; Lower Pannonia did not even have a legion. In der Neuzeit wurde Mark Aurel wiederentdeckt und erneut als Idealherrscher verehrt. Als auch hier die Pest sich ausbreitete, reisten die Imperatoren auf Anraten von Mark Aurels Leibarzt Galen nach Rom ab. Parfum Parfummarken Parfümeure Duftnoten Duftzwillinge. Parfumo. [315] It survived in the scholarly traditions of the Eastern Church and the first surviving quotes of the book, as well as the first known reference of it by name ('Marcus's writings to himself') are from Arethas of Caesarea in the 10th century and in the Byzantine Suda (perhaps inserted by Arethas himself). Man hat ihr Untreue gegenüber ihrem Gatten nachgesagt. The most important group of sources, the biographies contained in the Historia Augusta, claimed to be written by a group of authors at the turn of the 4th century AD, but it is believed they were in fact written by a single author (referred to here as 'the biographer') from about 395 AD. He now took the name Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar. Die Lager im Grenzbereich, von denen aus Mark Aurel die militärischen Operationen leitete, wechselten mit den Erfordernissen der Situation. [74], As quaestor, Marcus would have had little real administrative work to do. Er verheiratete seinen Sohn, der ebenfalls Annius Verus hieß – Mark Aurels Vater also –, mit Domitia Lucilla, einer Verwandten Kaiser Hadrians, deren Familie durch den Besitz von Ziegeleien reich geworden war. [274] In one speech, Marcus himself reminded the Senate that the imperial palace where he lived was not truly his possession but theirs. Vielleicht haben der Thronwechsel und das noch unerprobte Doppelkaisertum von Mark Aurel und Lucius Verus die Parther ermutigt, unverzüglich loszuschlagen. Januar 177 machte er Commodus (der Zwillingsbruder Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus war als Vierjähriger, der ein Jahr jüngere Bruder Annius Verus Caesar mit sieben Jahren verstorben) zum gleichberechtigten Mitkaiser (Augustus), das Oberpontifikat behielt er sich allerdings selbst vor, um wie einst gegenüber Lucius Verus seinen Vorrang zu verdeutlichen. It was first published in 1558 in Zurich by Wilhelm Xylander (ne Holzmann), from a manuscript reportedly lost shortly afterwards. [239] At the end of the year, Lucius took the title Armeniacus, despite having never seen combat; Marcus declined to accept the title until the following year. Einer seiner geistigen Väter, eben Epiktet, war ein verbannter Sklave. [84], After taking the toga virilis in 136, Marcus probably began his training in oratory. [187], Fronto's letters continued through Marcus's early reign. As Antoninus aged, Marcus would take on more administrative duties, more still when he became the praetorian prefect (an office that was as much secretarial as military) when Marcus Gavius Maximus died in 156 or 157. πέφυρσαι οὖν, ὥστε τὴν μὲν δόξαν τὴν τοῦ φιλοσόφου κτήσασθαι οὐκέτι σοι ῥᾴδιον˙ ἀνταγωνίζεται δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπόθεσις.